Sino-Italian Joint Studio
Metropolitan Laboratory: Urban Regeneration of Pukou Station Area in Nanjing
Organizers: Southeast University, IUAV University of Venice
Co-organizer: Fondazione EMGdotART
2019年12月6日至2020年6月30日，“大都会实验室-浦口火车站”项目由威尼斯建筑大学发起联合东南大学主办，雅伦格文化艺术基金会协办，在中国铁路上海局集团有限公司、南京江北新区宣传部的支持下成功举行。东南大学建筑学院院长张彤教授、建筑系主任朱雷教授与王川老师带领12名研究生，与来自威尼斯建筑大学副校长Enrico Fontanari 教授，建筑系主任Aldo Aymonino教授和Giuseppe Caldarola老师带领10名研究生组成近30人的国际团队。来自建筑、规划、景观等多专业的中外学生以自己的专业视角重新审视中国城市问题，探讨沉睡已久的浦口火车站地区如何在南京江北新区的发展中得以更新与活化，同时避免高速的城市建设对承载集体记忆的文化遗产可能产生的磨蚀。
Initiated by Università Iuav di Venezia and co-sponsored by Southeast University, co-organized by EMGdotART Foundation, “Laboratori Metropolitani - Pukou Station” from December 6, 2019 to June 30, 2020 was successfully held, with the support of China Railway Shanghai Bureau Group Co., Ltd., Nanjing Jiangbei New District Publicity Department. An international team of nearly 30 people participated in this studio, including Dean Zhang Tong, Prof. Zhu Lei and Dr. Wang Chuan and 12 graduate students from School of Architecture of Southeast University, as well as tutors and students from Università Iuav di Venezia. Students from architecture, urban planning, landscape architecture investigated Chinese urban issues from their own professional perspectives, and explored how to update and activated the declining Pukou Station area in the development of Jiangbei new district in Nanjing, while avoiding the possible erosion of cultural heritage bearing collective memory caused by rapid urban expansion.
Laboratori Metropolitani is the annual program set by the IUAV University of Venice in co-supervision with different Italian and foreign universities. It is activated to develop a research work on the urban design issues and on the implementation of sustainable development models within a range of cases of contemporary metropolises with alternative conditions of growth. Pukou Station, the focus of our workshop, is located in Pukou District, Nanjing City, Jiangsu Province. It was built in 1908, the 34th year of Guangxu in the Qing Dynasty. It is one of railway stations with the characteristics of the Republic of China. What’s more, it is a Major Historical and Cultural Site Protected at the National Level.
Historical Photographs of Pukou Station
As an iconic Republican architecture with both cultural and the industrial heritages, Pukou Station is facing new development opportunities and challenges in the new era of National Jiangbei New Area. How to redefine Pukou Station? How to rejuvenate its surrounding areas? The attempt to think about regional urban renewal and industrial heritage conservation and redevelopment from urban to architectural scales is the key theme of this joint studio.
Satellite Map of Pukou Station Area
教学目的 STUDIO OBJECTIVES
Explore the renovation and revitalization of historical and cultural heritages from an architectural perspective, based on the material remains that witnessed the history of railway development in modern China.
Leverage the interactivity of multidisciplinary, and seek a balanced model of the conservation of heritage, the inheritance of historical context and the prosperity of regional economy.
教学日程 STUDIO SCHEDULE
1. 联合教学工作营 2019.12
Joint Workshop in Nanjing | Dec 2019
On the morning of December 6, 2019, the opening ceremony of the Joint Studio, which is jointly held by IUAV University of Venice and Southeast University, supported by EMGdotART Foundation, was held in School of Architecture, Southeast University, Nanjing.
Workshop Opening at Southeast University, Nanjing
From the afternoon of 6th Dec to 7th Dec, the whole team conducted an overall investigation in the Pukou Station Area, and comprehensively inspected the features of the area.
Research Visit to Pukou Station and Surroundings
Afterwards, 24 students were divided into five groups. Each group of 4-5 students came from both schools. They worked together for 4 days to develop brainstorming and conceptual ideas.
In the afternoon of December 9 and the morning of December 12, each group made two presentations on the results in the middle and final stages. Professors made comments and suggestions on each group's research analysis and design ideas.
Professor Zhang Tong, Dean of School of Architecture of Southeast University and Professor Fontanari Enrico, Vice President of IUAV University of Venice made closing speeches for the workshop, and all project team members celebrated the successful conclusion of the workshop.
Workshop Group Photo
2. 深化设计阶段 2019.12 – 2020.06
Design Development Phase | Dec 2019 – Jun 2020
Based on the first week of workshop, each group continues to deepen and complete their own design respectively at their own schools.
3. 成果交流与展示 2020.06
Final Online Presentation | Jun 2020
The final public presentation of the Sino-Italian Joint Studio was held online in Jun 30th, 2020, attracting approximately 100 participants online.
东南大学学生成果 WORKS OF SEU STUDENTS
GROUP1: URBAN R.A.I.L.
小组成员：王东平、刘雪纯、Michele Tabellini （双学位硕士研究生）
Group members：Vivian Wang, Shirley Liu, Michele Tabellini
Facing the rapid development of JIangbei New Area and the decline of the old city, the railway tracks in Pukou Station Area, once the skeleton of urban growth and development, has now become a huge obstacle to the connection of urban infrastructure network and the continuity of urban public space. On the basis of preserving the basic urban structure of the old city, the design adopts “urban acupuncture” approach, conduct the micro-renewal and injects new vitality points into the city from bottom to top. Based on the semantic analysis of R.A.I.L., a four-point vision is proposed. Based on the track itself of Pukou Station and the track itself along the region, four elements filled with collective memory along the track are discovered as "pins". According to the material form relationship between the track and the building and the natural environment in the site，traffic cut condition, status of function, six sites were selected as "acupoint" and were endowed with different visions. Abstracted and deformed elements were re-implanted in the site, and the rich industrial cultural memory of the site was translated and reproduced to achieve the effect of catalysts, and to activate the urban space of the railway track.
Extraction of Elements
Overall Regeneration Plan
plan and perspective of site1
plan and perspective of site6
GROUP2: WATERFRONT PLUS——AQUA URBANISM
Group members：Ding Ben, Lin Siyuan, Wei Yuyao
Based on a historical map of Nanjing in 1962, aqua urbanism plan - "Waterfront Plus" - respects the historical transportation function and hydrological system of Pukou Station and surrounding areas. With Pukou Station as the core, railway as the clue and a "几" shaped water axis as the soft boundary, the design aims to create a riverside landscape ecological island for Nanjing.
Based on the different characteristics of abandoned or declined urban villages, waterside old street, Yongsheng wetland and coal yard, the design takes "ecology" as the key theme for urban renewal. Retaining some transport function of the tracks and replacing the station function for modernization tram station make Pukou Station the dynamic core. As a heart pumping blood for human body, it will transport people to each public activity space along the railway, such as urban farms, water park, in park, rain garden, ecology, ecological science center street, water irrigation, platform, green nest, etc.
Hydrological Risk Assessing Based on Flood Level and Tide Level of Yangtze River in Nanjing & Graded Flood Walls
Waterfront typology based on the site
Section expression of waterfront
Sections of Waterfront + History；Activity；Ecology
Group members：Zou Yue, Ren Ziqiu, Yang Chen
设计将城市结构理解为多重流动系统的层叠，包括水平场域作为stream的基础以及层叠系统作为stream的调控。水平场域即多种复杂城市活动在城市地表相互交织所形成的水平性蔓延的场域基底。根据日常及非日常的活动流（activity flow），城市被梳理成层状结构。层叠系统则通过四个层面，分别是基础设施网格、通路、斑块以及元素，试图以人工秩序的介入完成对stream的调节。四层级分别对应城市叙事的扰动、连结和高潮，共同串联起城市叙事网络。由此叠加，设计建构起一种媒介城市结构（new mediating city structure）完成对于城市流动性的呈现，一个容纳城市活动和城市叙事的弹性框架。
The strong shape of infrastructures, such as tracks, formed the existing linear, ribbon structure of urban space. However, as the infrastructures were abandoned, the urban space gradually decayed into scattered fragments and lost its vitality. This design employs Richard Dagenhart's concept of 'Decontextualized City' to describe the problem we found in the site and to attempt to unveil the relationship between the future urban structure and new urban activities and narratives. This design describes the urban structure as a layering of multiple dynamic systems, including the layer of horizontal realm as the base of STREAMS and an overlapped system as the mediation of STREAMS. Multiple and complex activities are intertwined to form a kind of field base of horizontality on the urban surface. Depending on the daily and non-daily activity flows, the city is organized into horizontal fields with a hierarchical structure. The overlapped system intervenes at four layers: Facility grid, Access, Patches and Elements that attempt to regulate the streams. Their effects on the narrative correspond to Destabilization, Ligature and Climaxes respectively that overlap each other and work together to link the urban narrative network. The overlap of multiple dynamic systems forms new mediating city structure, a flexible framework that accommodates urban activities and narratives.
The Horizontal Realm & The Overlapped System
Detailed Design 1
Detailed Design 2
Detailed Design 3
Narrative Experience of Residents
Narrative Experience of Tourists
Urban Activities Slices
GROUP4: LINE：From Railway Transportation Land to Future Urban Public Space
Group members：Sun Ximeng，Lin Da，Zhou Yanbin
Both the railroad land extending from Pukou Station and several railway facilities land along the line gradually declined after the train was stopped. The railway facility system which was used to be independent of other city systems, is of possibility of opening to the city now. "LINE" and the continuation of the context in north of the Yangtze River provide opportunities. The design concentrates on the three elements: land for railway facilities, land for rails, and train cabins. It proposes two strategies for the systematic reuse of the railway system. One is the systematic replacement of railway facilities: on the basis of responding to the city's needs, the theme of activities for the corresponding plots of the three subsystems of passenger transportation, freight transportation, deployment and maintenance were replaced by "public service", "culture and art", and "train" Related experience". The second is the redefinition of rail land and train cabins: the function of the subsystem is realized in the space and time through the train cabins. As a result, the rails and the "mobile function" cabins are used as a dynamic basement to establish a spatial and temporal relationship for the collage among the three new systems, and to realize the continuation of the "LINE".
Diagram of Land Reuse System for Trains and Carriages
Value Assessment of Existing Railway Facility Subsystem
Overall Mapping: A Dynamic Base That Integrates the Collages of the Three Systems
From Passenger Transport System to Public Service: Pukou Cultural Hub
From Deployment and Maintenance to Train Experience: Train Museum
From Cargo Systems to Creation：Warehouse of Art workshop
威尼斯建筑大学学生成果 WORKS OF IUAV STUDENTS
Painting: Tang Letian, Li Yuru
We hope to improve the small commodity market near Pukou Park and the low-density and quality residential complexes in the vicinity of Pukou Park, and in the triangle zone enclosed by Pukou Station, ferry and warehouse area, a multi-layer public space with high accessibility will be built, so that local residents and tourists have a wider range of activities. Moreover, a tram was designed using the existing railway line, connecting Pukou Station and the area of Foshou Lake to activate the entire Pukou core tourist zone.
GROUP1: Ferry Terminal and Pukou Railway Station
小组成员：Francesco Del Cozzo
Group member：Francesco Del Cozzo
The old ferry terminal will be removed for take new relief to the plaza and make the station visible from the Yangtze river . The new terminal rises 190 m in a strategic place because it is at the end of the pathway that marks the waterfront. This would be the starting point for the urban renewal of the Pukou district. The ferry terminal is integrated with high density and mixed use tower. This tower represents a great landmark to locate the district. The elevation of the tower will be set backs and overhangs, light and shadows to create variations in the layout of the building. The old railway station, which has an important historic and cultural heritage, will be transfered to diversified functions, including railway station and the entrance of linear park and museum.
GROUP2: A New Art District for Pukou
小组成员：Sara Peron，Gianmaria Barbato
Group members：Sara Peron，Gianmaria Barbato
To date, the area is in a state of total abandonment. Our intervention takes on a new need: the Regeneration and Re-stitching of the urban fabric. A conservative idea, trying to keep the pre-existing wherever possible and, at the same time, changing the intended use to create a large Art District. The goal is twofold: to cancel this separation due to their discontinued use and the regeneration of the green area along the Yangtze River intended as redevelopment in public spaces aimed at social issues. The transformation of the new Landscape takes place through interventions whose development goes hand in hand. At ground level, the laying of a flooring with different textures, materiality and dimensions to identify different degrees of walkway: system of pedestrian public spaces of the urban park along the canal, of connection of the Warehouses, of the Waterfront. At coverage level, the construction of two walkways: the first at 5.0 m; the second at an altitude of 8.0 m which acts as a filter with the organic plate of the Park. Both equipped with connecting stairways and serving the accesses at each Warehouses.Lastly, the maintenance of the Warehouse envelope: a conservation operation of the original brick structure, with only the targeted modification and removal of some trusses to allow the 5.0 m altitude walkway to anchor and support the existing pillar.
GROUP3: Low Rise, High Density
小组成员：Claudia Capodaglio, Alberto Ferlin, Francesca Vallarsa
Group members：Claudia Capodaglio, Alberto Ferlin, Francesca Vallarsa
The strategy consists in proposing a spontaneous low-density settlement based on the use of a regular 5m x 5m grid, which regulates and manages the space, leaving the possibility of self-construction and self-management. Being a versatile settlement, it can be adapted to the pre-existences of the place. The covering of the existing market is maintained and topped. The system anchors itself to the new park designed with the new settlement and the linear park on the other side of the system. The aim is to suppose to the high density settlement of a neighborhood for 5 million inhabitants. The regular grid is broken by exceptional elements that break the system both in plan and in elevation like the auditorium, market coverage and the different level of the waterfront.
GROUP4: The Park Project
小组成员：Anna Maria Morelato, Francesco Barella
Group members：Anna Maria Morelato, Francesco Barella
The project is located in the industrial coal storage area between the Warehouses and Pokou Station. An equipped green area will replace the existing concrete expanse, this community park will be complemented by several attractors such as: bar, restaurant, library, Olympic swimming pool, sports hall and other different sports facilities. Pedestrian and vehicular traffic allows the permeability and accessibility of this new green system, also serving the new waterfront, a portion of the dock on the Yangtze reorganized with greenery and pedestrian paths to return an area of landscape value to the community. The park is also reached by a tram service with two different stations that allow its usability. A reinforced concrete and glass plate structure connects the different poles of interest in the entire Pokou area with pedestrian paths. The plate is divided into two different portions, the first is more orthogonal to the axes dictated by the park at a height of 8 meters and the second is an organic form that connects the different sports facilities of the northern area to the school system. To mediate the two different heights we find ramps that allow to have different points of view of the area. The accessibility of the plate is defined by the different ascent points, stairs and urban elevators within the park.
Prof Enrico Fontanari © IUAV 2019
In memory of distinguished and beloved Professor Enrico Fontanari.
In the past years, Professor Fontanari established numerous strong academic connections with Chinese universities as the Vice Rector for the Foreign Affairs of Università Iuav di Venezia. Particularly, the fruitful cooperation in several joint studio courses, student exchange program and Venice Architecture Biennale significantly boosted the link between Università Iuav di Venezia and Southeast University. It is an outstanding sample of Sino-Italian academic collaboration with mutual trust, respect and support.
It is heart-breaking news of the sudden demise of Professor Fontanari. His insightful lectures and comments were well welcomed by the SEU-ARCH students that he taught and his broad knowledge and inspiring ideas had widely stimulated the SEU-ARCH scholars that he cooperated with. Although he is no longer with us, his strong influence on the field will last for a long time.
东南大学Southeast University：张彤（Zhang Tong）、朱雷（Zhu Lei）、王川（Wang Chuan）
威尼斯建筑大学IUAV University of Venice：Enrico Fontanari, Aldo Aymonino, Giuseppe Caldarola
特邀答辩评委 Specially Distinguished Juror：
东南大学建筑学院副教授 江泓（Jiang Hong, Associate Professor, Southeast University）
特别鸣谢 Special Acknowledgement：
We would like to take this opportunity to express our special thanks to China Railway Shanghai Bureau Group Co., Ltd. and the Publicity Department of Nanjing Jiangbei New District for their support to this project!