Introduction to the Architecture and Anthropology of Habitation, Ancient and Modern
Esra Sahin Burat
Architectural Internalization Demonstration School, Associate Professor
自公元前9000年以来，地中海盆地周围发展了丰富的文化和定居地，定居地的建造展现出各种城市格局、建筑风格，使用了不同的技术和材料。但在建筑传统中仍可发现各种延续性、相似性和复兴，这不仅是由于材料和技术的连续性，也不完全是由于环境的影响，而是由于相互关联又看似遥远的文化所共享的文化模式和宇宙观。本课程旨在研究这些积淀丰富的建筑传统，它们与现代建筑的主要原则相关。现代建筑的先驱者曾仔细研究这些建筑传统并做了各种阐释。尽管使用现代材料和技术，以及与过去决裂是现代建筑的首要任务，但与地形的关系、与地面的衔接、立面处理、遮阳、对城市的贡献、材料和表面处理、空间组织、社会交往、植物和动物的适应性、花园设计和卫生设施等问题将被有意识的纳入考察，以从传统栖居方式的共同遗产中学习，提出新的设计，重新响应人类居住的永恒需求，即寻求舒适和意义。该课程的基本前提是，在生态和经济不稳定和不平衡的当下，亟需研究这些主题，并重新审视那些在多个相关层面提供了精心考虑的人类栖居案例。课程每讲都将从一个不同的维度进行探究，并通过不同时代和地方的例子进行讨论。Urbanized settlements have been established around the Mediterranean basin since the end of the last age, which brought forth a temperate climate and steady seasons that allowed farming and animal domestication to flourish. The region has since been settled by numerous cultures and their habitations have been built through a variety of urban configurations, styles, techniques, and materials. Nevertheless, various continuities, similarities, and revivals can be discerned in the building traditions, resulting not only from the availability of materials and continuity of techniques, nor exclusively due to the environmental influences, but also from cultural modalities and cosmologies that are shared by both related and seemingly distant cultures. This course aims to investigate these richly sedimented building traditions as they were pertinent to the key tenets of modern architecture, the pioneers of which closely examined and variously interpreted them. Although the use of modern materials and techniques, and a break from the past were on the forefront of modern architecture, issues that pertained to the relationship with the topography, articulation of the ground, façade treatment, shading, contribution to the urban realm, material and surface treatment, spatial organization, social interaction, accommodation of the flora and fauna, garden design, and sanitation were taken into consideration with a conscious effort to learn from the shared heritage of earlier settlements and propose novel designs that re-responded to the perpetual requirements of human habitation that sought both comfort and meaning. The basic premise of the course is that in the current age of ecological and economical instabilities and disequilibrium, it is imperative to study these topics and re-examine the examples that offer careful considerations of the multiple and correlated dimensions of human habitation on earth. Each lecture will take on a different dimension of the inquiry and discuss it though examples across various times and localities.