Contemporary Settlement Patterns Ⅳ | From Individual to Collective
——Urban Re-generation in Xiao Xi- Hu Traditional District, Nanjing
SEU-PoliTo Joint Design Studio
研究生一年级：吴晓敏、尹沁雪、甘羽、武诗葭、吴剑超、Harris Yasser、Chiara Loi、包阳、王家鑫、Seon Hyeong Choi、Bc.Anna Khaver
Michela Barosio 都灵理工大学建筑与城市设计方向研究员、副教授黄洁 高级工程师，历保集团副总经理吴锦绣 东南大学建筑学院教授张玫英 东南大学建筑学院副教授
This Design Studio lead by Prof. Marco Trisciuoglio, together with Prof. Bao Li and Dr. Dong Yinan, is the fourth year of joint teaching experiment by Southeast University and Politecnico di Torino, which is devoted to a mixed team of students (year 4 of bachelor and year 1 of master majored in Architecture). The subject of the studio was the urban regeneration design of a north-east part of Xiao Xi- Hu traditional district in the old Southern City, Nanjing.
The main aim of this design studio is to investigate the contemporary living space and settlement patterns in traditional urban district through learning and practicing the methods of urban morphology and architecture typology (for Bachelor students). Furthermore, master students will be asked to focus on the complexity of public space system construction and think about the logic of Chinese city transitional development process during design research.
Into an international and historical perspective, urban design is a matter of spaces, overall open and collective spaces. The European citys traditionally live in the context of a continuous dialogue between residential urban fabrics and special buildings with their own symbolic spaces: squares for churches, theatres, city halls, wide roads for aristocratic palaces and public buildings, other squares for markets, and gardens and parks, open to the people as small natural area inside the artificial world of the city. In architectural culture, every time urban design is in crisis is because the design of urban collective and open spaces is in crisis.
And what about the Chinese city? May we choose streets, small gardens, even tea-houses, open courtyards, small esplanades as urban design topics? May we use “porosity” criteria to break the system of the closed block in the Chinese cities and design a new vivid life for the Nanjing blocks? This could be a great urban design challenge in order to investigate the specific role and the traditional meaning of collective space in China as a topic of urban morphology.
The core of interest is the morphological, environmental (and also social and economical asset) of Xiao XiHu, a small plot into an area in the southern part of Nanjing, located at the interior side of the ancient city-walls. The Da Youfang Xiang block is on the list of 22 Historical preserved areas of Nanjing, with its high cultural and historical value. It has been occupied in the time by a workers’ slum and it is on going to be transformed today by several regeneration projects. Xiao XiHu, where a small pond was located in old time, could become today an attractive place, capable to improve the collective use of the internal part of the entire block.
场地区位 Site Location
The Design Studio started from five considerations:
1.Xiao XiHu is not only a plot in a block: four different streets are surrounding Da Youfang Xiang block (different by size, section, typology, kind of traffic and urban relevance) and linking it to the neighborhood in a way that must be designed;
2.Xiao XiHu is in between the two area of FuZiMiao and LaoMenDong, representing two different philosophies of urban regeneration (of last 20 years), that share the same concept of “inventing an old tradition” or “creating a new heritage”;
3.Xiao XiHu is a plot full of historical traces (un-tangible and tangible ones, from the name that remember a lake to the recently found archaeological ruines): all that is useful to create an identity and a “storytelling” to look at the future, even if starting from the past;
4.Xiao XiHu is a portion of an urban scenario in fast development and it is an area “in mutation”: it deserves free reasoning to design its future and to imagine innovative programs;
5.Xiao XiHu (as well as Da Youfang Xiang block) must be seen as a possible “laboratory” where professors and students could experiment: innovative building techniques and languages, a new interplay between density and typology, a different interpretation of urban spaces and places.
小西湖街区2017年航拍图 Block Aerial Image（邓浩摄）
用地航拍图 Site Aerial Image
As usual in the teaching experiment driven by the Joint Research Unit “Transitional Morphologies” (established between Southeast University and Politecnico di Torino), the aim of the Design Studio was making Chinese students approach the Italian morphological way to read the existing city, in order to design its regeneration.
借此机会，我们得以重新审视穆拉托里（Saverio Muratori）和卡尼吉亚（Gianfranco Caniggia）的设计研究理论与工具（经由阿尔多·罗西（Aldo Rossi）传播至世界各地），认识到它们在当代中国城市形态研究中的丰硕价值。
It has been the opportunity to recover the design theories and the design instruments studied by Saverio Muratori and Gianfranco Caniggia (but diffused all over the world by Aldo Rossi), recognizing their fruitful value in the research about the urban form of the contemporary Chinese cities.
It has been also the opportunity to go ahead in the reasoning about the morphology as a powerful tool to work on urban design: using western typological categories in approaching the traditional and contemporary processes of development of the Chinese city is a fruitful way to innovate the “morphological thought” and to make it more apt to face the contemporary cities’ design question all over the world.
小西湖街区诺利地图 Nolli Map（2019）
小西湖街区类型学地图 Typological Map（2019）
As in the tradition of the Design Studios “Urban morphology, architectural typology, contemporary settlement patterns”, the teaching activity in the Design Studio has been organized by weekly collective discussions about design development and Design Studio topics, with the participation of mixed groups of undergraduate and graduate students.
The design process has been defined as an incremental step-based process, which involved different stages, such as: diagnosis of the context, envisioning exercises and development of a number of design options, selection of a design alternative and their implementation with specific attention to the role of the collective spaces.
小西湖街区居住建筑类型 Architecture Types of Housing（2019）
Historical Building Research in Site
The first aim of the Design Studio was practicing fundaments of urban morphology and buildings typology in order to read the urban spaces and artefacts.
The second aim of the Design Studio was using that reading activity in order to look for innovative design solutions for the contemporary city.
Based on the concepts of TECTONICS, TYPOLOGY and TOPOGRAPHY, the Design Studio has let Bachelor and Master students investigate together (through design activities as surveys, sketches, models, diagram) on the interplay between tradition and modernity.In the second part of the semester Master students has been asked to face some aspects of complexity concerning COLLECTIVE AND OPEN SPACES.
This topic, together with INNOVATIVE BUILDING SOLUTIONS, TYPES MUTATIONS, CHANGES IN URBAN FUNCTIONS, will be the one of four cores of the teaching activity of “Transitional Morphologies” Design Studio in the coming years, together with the main topic of design process, in connection with the nowadays development of society, economy, sustainability .
Design Models Collection
Xiaomin Wu, Ling Yang, Jiachun Du
The design is based on site investigation, focusing on three elements: firstly, the landscape element ( Xiaoxihu landscape); secondly, the historical element (retained architectural); thirdly, the crowd element (urban population, residents in the plot). How to deal with the landscape elements in the site, how to deal with the relationship between it and city, how to deal with the relationship between the old and new buildings, etc. are all the focus of this design consideration.
In response to the aboved problems, the key word of “Forest Forest” is proposed, including two layers of meanings: First, the trees form a forest of natural meaning, and a road connecting the fast park in the base and the city node in the northeast corner of the land is formed inside the base. Guided trees lead the natural landscape of Xiaoxihu into the city. The second is that the pillars form an abstract forest. By extending the wooden structure of the preserved historical building, it defines a new public space part.
Qinxue Yin, Shangcheng Hou, Yiyu Lin
Taking "connection" as the key word, this design starts from the connection between city and residential area, old people and children, traditional buildings and new buildings, and explores the renewal mode of residential historical district. In terms of functional configuration, the east side of the site is open to the city, in which the site park, historical building exhibition, activity center and other functions are located. The west side of the site is relatively quiet and private living space, which is connected with the public space by semi-private space. In terms of the users, children in the block are lead into the site, and imitate the model of "intergenerational communication center" , so that children who are not in custody after school can accompany and communicate with the elderly in the site. On architectural design, on the one hand, keeping and repairing some of the valuable historical building. On the other hand, using the method of morphological typology, and making innovative design based on maintaining traditional streets, building scale and texture. Besides, retain the courtyard house living mode, and make the new architecture meet the demand of modern life and historical context protecting.
G3：Co- Living 多元共居
Yu Gan, Ruiling Gao, Jiachun Wang
The group plan started from the research of typology, arranged the nolli map of the site, designed around the two roads in the site, introduced the flow of people into the central square, and activated the site atmosphere. At the same time, the road in the site divided the land into three parts, and combined with the preliminary investigation, it was designed into three different types of houses, which are suitable for business people, elderly people and young people.
The part along the street is a residential unit integrated with business, combined with the results of previous investigations, there are mainly several modes of living in front of the store and staying in the store. In terms of public space nodes, two households near the central square and the street corner were opened, and glass boxes were used to complete the transition between traditional sloped roof residential houses and large public spaces as an entrance to introduce residents into the block.
The design of the residential part of the elderly is mainly to transition between public and private space through the shared home space. The residential part is mainly arranged along the street to strengthen the concept of the public activity road in the early stage. At the same time, the old and new buildings are handed over.
G4：The Walls 墙
Shijia Wu, Xianyue Yu, Shuyi Wang
The boundary of property right and the prototype of courtyard reflect the restriction and development of historical and topographical conditions, and are the important elements to embody the characteristics of the residential plot in the old city. Therefore, the two can be used as a starting point for the urban renewal of an old city residential blocks, in order to carry out the corresponding strategy to deal with the follow-up, and to achieve harmony between the old and the new.
n terms of retention strategy, first of all, the existing property boundaries within the site reflect the architectural texture of the old courtyard style, and we chose to retain these property boundaries and allow them to continue to exist in the form of Gable Walls. Secondly, in addition to retaining the required two heritage buildings, the houses of those who do not wish to move are kept as far as possible. In the case of whose houses do not retain, they are placed in parallel on plots of land to let the aborigines live together along the west side alley in order to keep the atmosphere of the old alley.
In the new construction strategy, first of all, new buildings are used to darning the old courtyard houses to form a yard between the old and new. Secondly, in the planning of public space, the space open to the city and the space open to the residents are distinguished. The former Residence Museum of the Wan’s Brothers, space facing to the Kuaiyuan on the south side and space along the street on the north side, are open to the city. Meanwhile, the old well inside the plot were converted into laundry rooms, node squares were expanded, courtyard spaces were reorganized, shared boxes were inserted into the courtyard. These spaces were more private and open only to residents.
吴剑超 Jianchao Wu，Harris Yasser，Chiara Loi
Promenade with light is the theme of our design, which is based on two main points: light passing is to improve the lighting environment of the site; lane leading is based on the purpose of connecting the internal environment and the two open spaces on the east part of the site.
To "direct people": summary yard space in Typology, lane with changing width can be divided into many L-shaped corner yards, which people will use to store objects and carry out daily life. We applied the Moriyama house as the prototype and reconstructed the existing two paths of the site. A new flow path has been built between the two old buildings. Spaces has been divided into smaller parts by walls to have a relationship between old and new.
To "enlighten the area": in the daytime, let people's vision be continuous in space, and design many "high transparency" rooms. At night, windows are used as the secondary source of light, by making a relation between them and the open spaces that they are facing.
In terms of shape, the series of small buildings are linked with the original Jiangnan houses in order to respect the context of Xiao Xihu area.
方案一 Project- 01:
Harris Yasser，Chiara Loi
吴剑超 Jianchao Wu
G6：Up and Down 游廊戏巷
Yang Bao, Yinan Chen, Zhenyu Zhang
This project mainly focuses on public space. We started from the site study of Xiaoxihu and came to the following conclusions: the public space is not efficient; the public space is not well-hierarchy; the public has no clear boundary. Public space takes the responsibility of the city living room of the neighbourhood and the passing space of the visitors. As a result, we come to a key word “Up and Down”. We want to invite vertical public space to make it better-hierarchy and a various experiences during walking. Using modern architectural language, we invite a vertical city gallery to compare with the traditional courtyard house in our site.
G7：Inter- growth 共生
Jiaxin Wang, Lei Zhang, Shunqing Yan
The plot in this design is located in the southwest corner of the junction of Xiaoxihu road and Gutong lane. This is an important traffic thoroughfare connecting Fuzimiao and Laomendong. According to the requirements of the upper planning, a water landscape is to be built in the south of the site. Within the site, Wan's former residence and a courtyard house in Ming and Qing Dynasties are completely preserved.
In combination with the environmental factors around the site and the needs of residents within the site, this scheme creates a new pedestrian street connecting "street, preserved building and landscape" by combing the types of existing traditional residential buildings, reorganizes the relationship between the preserved building and the new building, and creates a new characteristic pedestrian environment for the city.
Seon Hyeong Choi、Bc.Anna Khaver
For 2019 Xiaoxihu project, we, group 8 re-designed the subject site in a way that can preserve the original identity of the site but also can provide reactivation to the oldness. To do this, the majority of the existing low-level buildings are maintained but only renovated includes the main two historical buildings. On the other hand, to re-generate the old and deficient parts of the property, the existing community centre has been enlarged and developed in a modernized architecture with a new coffee shop facing the east. Besides, a new library at the north and east corner of the site has been designed to provide merit of the site. The buildings on the east side of the site include the community centre and the library are for commercial and public uses to attract the people from the outside and to improve the self-sufficiency of the community.
The public spaces within this zone are designed to attract visitors and tourist with small parks and sitting areas. On the other hand, mainly there are residential buildings on the west side of the property to keep the original residents who are the most important factors to protect the distinctive value of this historical site. In addition, the new housing is targeted for the new occupancies includes families as well. The public residential courtyards are developed to satisfy the users where they can communicate with neighbourhood and conduct their house chores.
During the fourth season of the Design Studio, students are divided into eight groups to carry out research on the design of residential regeneration on different topics in the same plot. Under the framework of a shared team, with their unique perspective and ideas, each group and each person has contributed their talent and effort to the design process, from beginning to the gradual improvement. During the process of teaching and learning, teachers and students face different problems and challenges together. Through the in- depth and sustained, continuous, back- and- forth and tireless discussion and reflection, students not only achieved excellent results, but more importantly, they learn to look at contemporary Architecture issues with historical thinking and urban perspective.
Teaching Team Introduction